Branching: Branching structures are based on geometric systems that expand through bifurcation without returning to form closed cells.
Catenaries: Curve a line assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends – idealized by a hanging chain or cable.
Cellular structures: A material with cellular structure resulting from introduction of gas bubbles during manufacture.
Minimal Surfaces: Minimal surfaces are defined as surfaces with zero mean curvature.
Pneus: Inflatable structures defined by an elastic enclosure filled with gas.